Battery Raw Materials - Where from and Where to? (2022)

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ATZ Worldw. 2021; 123(9): 8–13.

Published online 2021 Aug 27. doi:10.1007/s38311-021-0715-5

PMCID: PMC8390110

Richard BackhausBattery Raw Materials - Where from and Where to? (1)

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Electric cars make up a growing share of the market, which means that larger numbers of batteries will need to be produced and this in turn will lead to an increasing demand for raw materials. In particular during the ramp-up phase of electric mobility, there are likely to be occasional supply bottlenecks. At a later stage, recycling concepts for used battery cells could relieve the pressure on supply chains.

The global electric car fleet grew to 10.9 million vehicles in 2020 [1], which amounts to three million more than in the previous year. With more than five million electric cars on the road, China is still the undisputed leader, followed by the USA. with 1.77 million. Germany has made its way into third place with almost 570,000 electric vehicles [1]. In 2020, the number of newly registered electric cars reached a record high of 3.18 million units. From 2030 onward, they could make up between 25 and 75 % of new registrations. This will lead to a demand for battery power of between 1 and 6 TWh per year, depending on which study one reads [2].

As electric vehicles become more widespread, the demand for special raw materials for the vehicles and, in particular, for the batteries will continue to grow. All the forecasts indicate that lithium-ion batteries will be the standard solution for electric cars over the next ten years and so the main substances needed will be the chemical elements graphite, cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel. Despite the developments in cell chemistry, the proportion of lithium by weight in each cell of around 72 g/kg is not likely to reduce noticeably during this period, according to estimates by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI). However, the proportion of cobalt could fall significantly from 200 g/kg of cell weight to around 60 g/kg. Therefore, the demand for primary raw materials for vehicle battery production by 2030 should amount to between 250,000 and 450,000 t of lithium, between 250,000 and 420,000 t of cobalt and between 1.3 and 2.4 million t of nickel .

(Video) How batteries go from raw materials to EVs

Assessment of raw material deposits

When assessing the deposits of raw materials, two different figures need to be taken into consideration: on the one hand, the resources generally available on the planet and, on the other, the deposits that can be extracted cost-effectively using today's technology at current market prices. At this point, one can give the all-clear for lithium- ion vehicle batteries. Scientists have confirmed that enough raw materials are available. In most cases, the total deposits will significantly exceed the predicted demand, even if the amount of raw materials needed were to increase in parallel as a result of more demand in other areas.

However, several studies indicate that temporary shortages or price increases for individual raw materials are certainly possible, for example if new production sites have to be opened, if the demand is too great or if there are problems with exports from producing countries . The situation varies considerably across the different metals, as an in-depth analysis and assessment by the German Mineral Resources Agency (Dera) shows , which is described in more detail in the following for the five chemical elements.


Graphite is used as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. It has the highest proportion by volume of all the battery raw materials and also represents a significant percentage of the costs of cell production. China has played a dominant role in almost the entire supply chain for several years and produces almost 50 % of the world's synthetic graphite and 70 % of the flake graphite, which requires pre-treatment before being used in batteries. Over the last few years, increasing exploration has been taking place, in particular in Africa. New extraction sites in Mozambique, Tanzania and Madagascar could relieve the pressure on the highly concentrated world market. However, the risks involved in the processing of flake graphite also present a problem for the security of supply, because this is carried out almost entirely in China, together with the production of anodes. Research is currently underway into new anode materials , which if they were used in mass-produced batteries could have an impact on the future demand for graphite.

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Lithium requirements for European electric vehicle battery production in 2030, in relation to the cell production capacity (NMC 811: 80 % nickel, 10 % manganese, 10 % cobalt; NMC 622: 60 % nickel, 20 % manganese, 20 % cobalt)

© [M] Dera


Like nickel and manganese, cobalt is required for battery cathodes. It currently presents the greatest procurement risks of all the battery raw materials. This is due in particular to the expected dynamic growth in demand and the resulting potential supply bottlenecks. "On the basis of current scenarios, the demand for cobalt for electric vehicles could increase to as much as 315,000 t by 2030, which is 20 times the current amount," says Siyamend Al Barazi from Dera. The ongoing development of low-cobalt or even cobalt-free cathodes could result in a considerable reduction in overall demand. The role of the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is by far the largest producer, presents major risks for strategic planning. "Cobalt mining there has dominated the global market for more than ten years, with a current market share of 69 %, and the country could increase its production considerably if demand continues to grow," explains Al Barazi.

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Global mined cobalt production in 2015, plus reserves (the color of the countries indicates the reserves; the data in the countries represent the annual production)

© [M] Agora Verkehrswende

(Video) Battery raw materials update with Rodney Hooper


As the lithium market is relatively small, the expected increase in demand is particularly high in relation to current production levels. "Our calculations show that the supply needs to triple by 2026 simply to cover future demand," says Michael Schmidt from Dera. The extraction of lithium is currently restricted to Australia, Chile and Argentina and to a few companies, with only four businesses controlling almost 60 % of global production. However, the boom in lithium over recent years has demonstrated that the lithium market is facing major changes. Alongside the expansion of existing facilities, large-scale projects are being planned and implemented in other countries, such as Canada, Mexico and Bolivia. Europe also has significant potential. Bottlenecks in the supply of lithium are currently unlikely, but experts have indicated that the concentration on just a few producer countries will remain unchanged. "In addition, Asian battery manufacturers in particular have secured large quotas by entering into long-term supply contracts and acquiring stakes in companies. This has reduced considerably the amount of lithium freely available on the world market," says Schmidt.


Battery applications make up only a small part of the manganese market. The main customer for manganese is the steel industry, which uses around 90 % of the global supply. Currently only approximately 0.2 % of the manganese extracted throughout the world is used in lithium-ion batteries. In the future, this figure will only increase to around 1 %.

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Global mined lithium production in 2015, plus reserves (the color of the countries indicates the reserves; the data in the countries represent the annual production)

© [M] Agora Verkehrswende


The global demand for nickel to produce lithium-ion batteries was more than 150,000 t in 2019 . This amounts to less than 5 % of the world market volume of primary nickel. By 2025, the demand from the electric vehicle sector could increase to approximately 500,000 t per year, which would be the equivalent of 15 % of the total global market. To increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries, a much greater proportion of nickel is used in the cells. This means that demand will rise disproportionately to the increase in battery production. Nickel sulfate is needed for lithium-ion batteries, which is a niche product produced from class-I nickel (over 99 % purity). To meet the growing demand in the future, new manufacturing methods for nickel sulfate need to be developed. The market is highly dependent on the supply of primary nickel from South East Asia and, in particular, from Indonesia, which is by far the biggest nickel mining country. In 2020, Indonesia imposed a ban on exports of nickel ore to ensure that large parts of the value chain remained in the country. After China, it is now the world's second largest nickel producer, but only of class-II nickel (less than 99 % purity). Many projects are underway in Indonesia with the aim of manufacturing higher-quality nickel products for battery production.

Recycling lithium-ion batteries

To reduce the world's dependence on the raw material producing countries referred to above, establishing a comprehensive recycling structure will become increasingly important in the future. Processes for recovering raw materials from small lithium-ion batteries, such as those in cell phones, are in part already being implemented. However, vehicle batteries are much larger, heavier and more powerful, which makes industrializing the recycling process more complex. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), together with Vinnova, Sweden's innovation agency, is funding the Libero research project at RWTH Aachen University as part of the Central Innovation Program for SMEs (ZIM). The German-Swedish consortium, consisting of two partners from industry and two from the research world in each country, is working on developing a robust, flexible and largely waste-free process for recycling batteries. The goal of the project, which began in 2019, is to plan a plant with an annual recycling capacity of 25,000 t of battery mass . The Finnish company Fortum, which is half state-owned, has already developed a process for recycling lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles .

One of the pioneers in the field of commercial battery recycling is Umicore. The process developed by the company consists of a pyro-metallurgical and a hydro-metallurgical phase. The initial thermal processing stage produces an alloy that contains cobalt, nickel and copper and a slag fraction. The metals are recovered in the subsequent hydro-metallurgical stage of the process. Umicore's first recycling plant has a capacity of 7000 t of battery mass per year, which corresponds to around 35,000 electric-vehicle batteries.

In early 2021, Volkswagen began operations at a pilot plant for recycling high-voltage vehicle batteries at its site in the German town of Salzgitter. The plant will recover 100 % of the lithium, nickel, manganese and cobalt, plus 90 % of the aluminum, copper and plastic . The plant is currently designed to recycle up to 3600 battery systems per year, which is the equivalent of around 1500 t of battery mass. However, the system can be scaled up to process larger volumes when more used batteries become available. According to Volkswagen, the recycling process does not involve smelting in a blast furnace, which would use large amounts of energy. The used battery systems delivered to the plant are deep discharged and disassembled. The individual parts are shredded to form granulate and this is then dried. The process produces aluminum, copper and plastics and, most importantly, a black powdery mixture that contains the essential battery raw materials: lithium, nickel, manganese, cobalt and graphite. Specialist partners of Volkswagen are subsequently responsible for separating and processing the individual elements by means of hydro-metallurgical processes that use water and chemicals.

Proportion by weight of the recyclable material in a lithium-ion battery (source: Volkswagen)

Recyclable materialProportion by weight [kg] (based on a total battery mass of 400 kg)

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(Video) LG Energy Solution Tells You the Secret to Smart Procurement of Battery Raw Materials!

"This allows the key components of old battery cells to be used to manufacture new cathodes," explains Mark Möller, Head of the Technical Development and E-Mobility division of Volkswagen Group Components. "As there will be a big increase in the demand for batteries and therefore also for raw materials, we can make good use of every gram of material that we recover." Other car manufacturers, such as Mercedes-Benz, are thinking along the same lines. As the company explained on request, it is planning a recycling plant for high-voltage batteries at its Gaggenau site in Germany.

Second-life approach

The re-use of old vehicle batteries in stationary applications could extend their service life before there is a need to recycle them. There is currently no practical experience on how many batteries would meet the requirements for second use in terms of their remaining storage capacity and service life. In general, the second-life concept is only suitable for applications where old batteries with a low energy density can be used. In addition, issues such as standardization and warranties need to be resolved .

According to the Fraunhofer ISI, higher failure and replacement rates can be expected than is the case with new batteries, which means that the high levels of reliability needed from decentralized battery storage systems for residential buildings, for example, cannot be guaranteed. Because of the necessary redundancy levels, the number of cells needed and therefore the cost of the batteries would be greater. The assumption of the Fraunhofer ISI is that only a fraction of the old traction batteries could actually be given a second life .


  1. Elektroautos: Bestand steigt weltweit auf 10,9 Millionen. Online: elektroautos-bestand-steigt-weltweit-auf-109-millionen.html, access: April 27, 2021

  2. Thielmann, A. et al.: Batterien für Elektroautos: Faktencheck und Handlungsbedarf. Online:, access: April 27, 2021

  3. Al Barazi, S. et al.: Batterierohstoffe für die Elektromobilität. Online: Themenheft-01-21.pdf;jsessionid=396E609556CA74734128C336131440D7.1_cid331?__blob=publicationFile&v=2, access: April 27, 2021

  4. Schäfer, P.: Neues Anodenmaterial für leistungsfähigere Li-Ion-Batterien. Online: anodenmaterial-fuer-leistungsfaehigere-li-ion-batterien/18497460, access: May 18, 2021

  5. RWTH Aachen: RWTH plant Pilotanlage für das Recycling von 25.000 Tonnen Batterien. Online: dzeoz?#aaaaaaaaaadzewc, access: April 27, 2021

  6. Reichenbach, M.: Finnland startet mit nationaler Batteriestrategie durch. Online, access: May 18, 2021

  7. Volkswagen: Aus alt mach neu: Volkswagen Group Components startet Batterie-Recycling. Online: pressemitteilungen/aus-alt-mach-neu-volkswagen-group-components- startet-batterie-recycling-6789, access: April 27, 2021

  8. Köllner, C.: Faktencheck Elektroauto-Batterien. Online: 17624376, access: May 18, 2021

2 Questions for …

What are the special features of your recycling concept for lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles?

Holländer _ The traditional way to recycle lithium-ion batteries has been using a thermal approach. Fortum is using a combination of mechanical and hydrometallurgical recycling, which has a significantly lower CO2 footprint. With this technology, the ability to separate different metals is also much better and a much larger proportion of the battery's active materials are recovered; in other words, we are able to recover up to 95 % of the scarce and valuable metals in a battery's black mass. We patented our own lithium separation method at the start of this year.

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Tero Holländer Head of Business Line Batteries at Fortum

© Fortum

When do you expect the process to be industrialised, when will there be enough batteries available to operate the plant economically?

Holländer _ We are already operating at an industrial scale with our current recycling capacity being about 3000 t per year, equivalent to about 10,000 electric car batteries. Our mechanical recycling plant in Ikaalinen is currently in the ramp-up phase and we have an industrial pilot plant for hydrometallurgical recycling in Harjavalta. Our goal is to build a larger-scale hydrometallurgical plant in Harjavalta enabling us to handle a larger amount of materials in the future.

(Video) Lithium ion/lfp battery raw material


"As is always the case, the entire supply chain of raw materials for lithium-ion batteries is only as strong as its weakest link. Battery production can only operate smoothly when all the necessary raw materials are available at the right time and in sufficient quantity. To achieve this goal and enable a rapid expansion of electric mobility, all the politicians and business leaders on an international level must be traveling in the same direction. The fatal impact that minor problems in the supply chain can have on the whole automotive production process has been clearly demonstrated by the ship that blocked the Suez Canal and the shortage of electronic components caused by the Covid-19 pandemic."


Richard Backhaus

is Correspondent of ATZ | MTZ | ATZelectronics.

Battery Raw Materials - Where from and Where to? (6)

(Video) Tesla & battery raw materials with Rodney Hooper


Where do battery raw materials come from? ›

Where do the materials to make batteries come from?
MaterialNatural Reserves
Material LithiumNatural Reserves Global: 80 million tons Bolivia (26%) Argentina (21%) Chile (12%) Australia (8%) China (6%)
Material GraphiteNatural Reserves Global: 800 million tons Turkey (28%) China (22%) Brazil (22%) Mozambique (8%)
5 more rows
Jul 29, 2022

What are the raw materials for making battery? ›

Lithium, nickel and cobalt are the key metals used to make EV batteries. Analysts believe there is a potential shortfall in the global mining capacity required to extract the minerals needed to manufacture sufficient batteries to meet projected EV demand.

Where are batteries made of? ›

The average alkaline AAA, AA, C, D, 9-volt or button-cell battery is made of steel and a mix of zinc/manganese/potassium/graphite, with the remaining balance made up of paper and plastic. Being non-toxic materials, all of these battery “ingredients” are conveniently recyclable.

What is the main source of battery? ›

When a battery is supplying power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal.
Electric battery.
First production1800s
Electronic symbol
4 more rows

Which country has the most lithium? ›

Where is lithium available from? With 8 million tons, Chile has the world's largest known lithium reserves. This puts the South American country ahead of Australia (2.7 million tons), Argentina (2 million tons) and China (1 million tons).

Where does Tesla get its lithium? ›

Tesla and other electric vehicle manufacturers rely heavily on a few different minerals. One of them, lithium, is largely mined, refined and processed by China, though lithium deposits can be found worldwide.

Where do we get lithium? ›

Lithium comes from two main sources: brine and hard rock. Brine deposits are found in salt lakes where lithium is extracted through an evaporation process. Brine harvesting is historically a simpler, more common method of extraction, but generally yields lower grade lithium.

Which metal is used in battery? ›

Nickel, cobalt, and lithium as battery raw materials

Nickel, cobalt and lithium are key metals used in today's active cathode materials and the chemistries deployed in high performance batteries.

Where does Tesla get its raw materials? ›

While this didn't happen, Tesla indeed uses a lot of raw materials that it sources directly from the mines. This was revealed thanks to Tesla's 2021 Impact Report published last week. According to this, Tesla sources more than 95% of lithium hydroxide, 50% of cobalt, and 30% of nickel directly from the mines.

How is a battery created? ›

How Are Batteries Made? - YouTube

Where are most batteries made? ›

China dominated the world's lithium-ion manufacturing market in 2021. That year, China produced some 79 percent of all lithium-ion batteries that entered the global market.

What chemicals are in batteries? ›

Sodium chloride, chloric acid, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, hydrochloric acid, potassium nitrate, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium acetate are all electrolyte compounds.

Where do the raw materials for lithium batteries come from? ›

Additionally, more than 80% of global lithium production comes from Australia, Chile, and Argentina, while more than 60% of manganese is mined in South Africa, China, and Australia (USGS 2018).

Is there enough lithium in the world? ›

Global lithium production totalled 100,000 tons (90.7 million kg) last year, while worldwide reserves stand at about 22 million tons (20 billion kg), according to the US Geological Survey.

What is the price of lithium today? ›

About Lithium

Lithium's price today is US$0.001373, with a 24-hour trading volume of $128,474. LITH is -0.41% in the last 24 hours. It is currently -5.23% from its 7-day all-time high of $0.001448, and 3.67% from its 7-day all-time low of $0.001324. LITH has a circulating supply of 2.79 B LITH.

Is Ukraine rich in lithium? ›

According to preliminary estimates, researchers believe that Ukraine is a treasure trove of lithium, holding about 500,000 tons of the “non-renewable mineral that makes renewable energy possible.” Lithium has become virtually irreplaceable in electric vehicle (EV) batteries because of its efficient energy storage per ...

Does lithium mining cause pollution? ›

According to a report by Friends of the Earth (FoE), lithium extraction inevitably harms the soil and causes air contamination. As demand rises, the mining impacts are “increasingly affecting communities where this harmful extraction takes place, jeopardising their access to water,” says the report.

What happens when we run out of lithium? ›

Running Out of Lithium

An inability to produce enough lithium would result in severe delays to the roll out and implementation of electric transport and renewable power – as such, it is fair to question whether there is enough of the prized element to meet global needs.

Who controls the world's lithium? ›

More than 80% of the world's raw lithium is mined in Australia, Chile, and China. And China controls more than half of the world's lithium processing and refining and has three-fourths of the lithium-ion battery megafactories in the world, according to the International Energy Agency.

Who is the largest lithium battery producer? ›

Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited, also known simply as CATL, is a Chinese battery company that manufactures lithium-ion EV batteries. Currently the biggest lithium-ion battery manufacturers on the planet, CATL is responsible for the creation of 96.7 gigawatt hours (GWh) of the planet's 296.8 GWh.

Does Russia have lithium? ›

The lithium reserves in Russia amount to one million tons, as it follows from the data of the US Geological Survey (USGS).

What is a Tesla battery made of? ›

nickel-cobalt-aluminum (NCA) nickel-cobalt-manganese (NCM) lithium iron phosphate (LFP)

Is lithium found in India? ›

Preliminary surveys and limited subsurface exploration by Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMDER), a unit of Department Atomic Energy (DAE), have shown presence of lithium resources of 1,600 tonnes (inferred category) in Marlagalla in Mandya district of Karnataka – the first traces in the ...

What mineral will replace lithium? ›

Salt. Salt, or sodium, is a close chemical cousin to lithium. While a very similar element, it does not have the same environmental impact, meaning it could be a feasible option to replace it. The solution could be sodium-ion batteries.

Are batteries DC or AC? ›

Batteries provide DC, which is generated from a chemical reaction inside of the battery.

What element is most used in batteries? ›

60% of the battery is made up of a combination of materials like zinc (anode), manganese (cathode) and potassium. These materials are all earth elements. This combination of material is 100% recovered and reused as a micro-nutrient in the production of fertilizer to grow corn.

Who Supply battery to Tesla? ›

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Chinese battery giant CATL (300750.SZ) is currently the sole supplier of LFP batteries to Tesla, which has been installing such batteries in cars manufactured in the Shanghai plant since 2020.

Where is lithium nickel and cobalt mined? ›

It all starts with metals and minerals. Prized cobalt mostly comes from mines in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Nickel is largely gathered in Indonesia and the Philippines; lithium in Argentina, Australia and Chile.

What minerals go into making a Tesla battery? ›

To make them, they'll need a lot of batteries. And that means they need a lot of minerals, like lithium, cobalt and nickel, to be dug up out of the earth. These minerals aren't particularly rare, but production needs to scale up massively — at an unprecedented pace — to meet the auto industry's ambitions.

What is present inside a battery? ›

Inside every battery, there are four components: two electrodes (anode and cathode), a separator (to prevent shorting), and an electrolyte (to move charges between the electrodes).

How batteries are recycled? ›

The broken battery pieces go into a vat, where the lead and heavy materials fall to the bottom while the plastic rises to the top. At this point, the polypropylene pieces are scooped away and the liquids are drawn off, leaving the lead and heavy metals. Each of the materials then begins its own recycling journey.

What are phone batteries made of? ›

Lithium-ion batteries found in most smartphones and electronics have a metal oxide cathode made of a cobalt, nickel, manganese or iron mix, a porous graphite anode that holds lithium ions within it and a lithium salt electrolyte.

Who is the biggest battery manufacturer? ›

Chinese company CATL is the world's largest seller of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles through the first half of 2022. Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Ltd., better known as CATL, is poised to remain the largest global seller of batteries for electric and hybrid cars in 2022.

Who makes car battery? ›

Most automotive batteries made in America are manufactured by one of two companies: Johnson Controls, Inc. or Exide Technologies. The dominant replacement market brand names, Interstate and DieHard, are both Johnson Controls products, as is the Optima brand.

How big is the battery market? ›

The market is expected to register a growth at a CAGR of 20.5% during the forecast period 2022-2027. Li-ion batteries are an evolving technology of interest.
Report AttributeDetails
Market Size Value in 2021US$ 60,385.6 Million
Market Outlook for 2027US$ 1,85,040.3 Million
Expected CAGR Growth20.5%
Base Year2021
5 more rows
Jun 15, 2022

Which liquid is used in battery? ›

The battery contains a liquid electrolyte such as sulfuric acid.

What acid is in batteries? ›

The electrolyte solution in lead acid batteries contains sulfuric acid, which is highly corrosive and can cause severe chemical burns to the skin and can damage the eyes. The solution is also poisonous if ingested. In addition, overcharging a lead acid battery can produce hydrogen sulfide gas.

Which acid is used in battery water? ›

Battery acid is sulfuric acid that has been diluted with water to attain a 37% concentration level. This particular type of acid is used in sealed lead acid batteries, however, concentration levels differenciate with some brands.

Where does the lithium for batteries come from? ›

Lithium comes from two main sources: brine and hard rock. Brine deposits are found in salt lakes where lithium is extracted through an evaporation process. Brine harvesting is historically a simpler, more common method of extraction, but generally yields lower grade lithium.

How much lithium ore does it take to make a battery? ›

Conversation. To manufacture each EV battery, you must process 25,000 pounds of brine for the lithium 30,000 pounds of ore for the cobalt 5,000 pounds of ore for the nickel, 25,000 pounds of ore for copper Diging up 500,000 pounds of the earth's crust For just - one - battery.

Are batteries made from fossil fuels? ›

The vast majority of lithium-ion batteries—about 77% of the world's supply—are manufactured in China, where coal is the primary energy source. (Coal emits roughly twice the amount of greenhouse gases as natural gas, another fossil fuel that can be used in high-heat manufacturing.)

Is there enough raw material for electric car batteries? ›

T&E's study shows that there would be enough lithium and nickel (1) metals to make up to 14 million battery electric cars (BEV) globally in 2023 – 55% higher than the current market projections.


1. AVERE Webinar - Raw Materials Supply Chain for EV Batteries
(AVERE The European Association for Electromobility)
2. McKinsey's Framework for Battery Raw Materials & their Investment Thesis - Ken Hoffman
(121 Mining Investment TV)
3. Here's Where the Juice That Powers Batteries Comes From
(Bloomberg Quicktake: Originals)
4. Will there be enough EV Battery Material?
(Now You Know)
5. What are the Metals Used In Lithium Ion Battery? Skill-Lync
(Skill Lync)
6. Lithium-ion Battery Raw Materials Sustainable Solution
(EcoNiLi Battery, Inc.)

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