Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (2022)

  • Author: Projectmaterials
  • Posted: September 20, 2017

What is a stud bolt? Stud bolts for flanges consist of a fully threaded steel rod and two heavy hexagonal steel nuts. Stud bolts are inserted in the flange holes and tightened to seal a flanged joint. The number, the length, the diameter of the stud bolts required for a flanged connection depend on the flanges type, diameter,and rating (as per the ASME flange bolt chart).

STUD BOLT AND NUTS

A stud bolt consists of one threaded steel rod and two (matching) hexagonal heavy steel nuts. Stud bolts and nuts are essential components of flanged joints, as they are key to seal flanged joints properly.

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (1)

Stud bolts are available in multiple diameters and lengths combinations, metric and imperial, andin a variety of materials from carbon steel to alloy, stainless and nickel alloys (common grades are: ASTM A193 B7, L7,B8, B8M, B16, Alloy 20, Monel, Hastelloy, Inconel, 17-4PH, titanium, etc.). These grades are discussed below in this article.

The material of the hex steel nuts shall match the material of the threaded rod (generally, stud materials ASTM A193 match with nuts materials ASTM A194).

The ASME B16.5 specification covers stud bolts and nuts for ASME flanges (number, the diameter and the length of required stud bolts, i.e “flange bolt chart”) by flange diameter, pressure class and face finish (RF, FF, RTJ).

STUD BOLT (THREADED ROD)

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (2)

A stud is a threaded rod that is inserted into the holes of the mating flanges and then tightened, at both ends, by applying a specific torque to the steel nuts.

Stud bolt length (OAL/FTF)

The length of the stud can be measured either as overall length (i.e., “OAL”) or as “first useable thread to first useable thread” (i.e., “FTF”).

The FTF length can be calculated by subtracting a quarter of an inch to the OAL length, and it the standard stud length measurement for piping applications.

Flanges of different diameter and rating require stud of different lengths and diameters.
Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (3)

Stud bolt thread pitch and thread series

The stud is threaded according to the specifications set by ASME B1.1.
The term “thread pitch” refers to the steepness of the angle of thread, which is measured in threads per inch.

The most usedthread is the symmetrical thread pitch type with a “V-profile” (a60-degree angle), as it is easier for the manufacturer to inspectcompared to the non-symmetrical types.

Thread series relate to the diameter and pitch combinations,measured by the number of threads per inch (“TPI”) applied to a single diameter:

  • Coarse thread series (UNC/UNRC): UNC is the most common type for screws, bolts, and nuts. Coarse threads are used for threads in low strength materials such as iron, mild steel, copper and softer alloy, aluminum, etc. The coarse thread is also more tolerant of adverse conditions and it facilitates quick assembly
  • Fine thread series (UNF/UNRF):UNF is widely used for precision duties and when higher tensile strength is required (vs. the coarse thread series)
  • 8-Thread series (8UN) is the elective threading method for several ASTM standards including A193 B7, A193 B8/B8M, and A320. This series is widely used for diameters from one inch upwards

Stud bolts covered by the ASTM A193 or A320 Specifications use 8UN for all diameters 1” and above, which means that there are 8 threads per inch for these sizes. For any other material grade, the buyer shall specify the thread pitch unless it is given by the applicable ASTM norm.

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (4). Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (5)

NUTS FOR STUD BOLTS

To fasten a stud, two heavy hex steel nuts have to be bolted at the opposite ends of the rod.

The stud and the steel nuts join perfectly due to the friction existing between their respective threads, by a slight stretching of the bolt, and the compression of the two joined parts.

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (6)

In the past, steel nuts had a squared head. Nowadays, hexagonal head nuts (featuring 6 sides instead of 4) have fully replaced the older shape as they ensure quicker and more effective screwing on the stud.

Nuts for petrochemical applications are tightened to a specific torque using special torque wrenches. The mechanical strength of the steel nut material shall be compatible with the strength of the mated bolt.

The dimensions and weights of heavy steel nuts for stud bolts are covered by the ASME B18.2.2 specification.

STUD VS BOLT

A common question is what is the difference between stud and bolts?

The answer is that a stud is a metal rod or shaft that features threads on both sides (as shown in the image above) and requires two heavy hexagonal nuts to be serrated; a bolt is a fastener with a “built-in” head nut at one side and that requires a single nut to be serrated.

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (7)Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (8)
Stud vs. bolt (stud on the left image, bolt on the right image)

STUD BOLT MATERIALS

The most common materials for stud bolts (for flanges) are ASTM A193 (grade B7, B8, B8M, B8T), ASTM A453 (grade 660), ASTM A320 (grade L7, L7M), and ASTM A182 (duplex and super duplex bolting). For aggressive fluids and environments, stud bolts can be coated with Xylan, Xylar and other materials.

ASTM A193 STUD BOLTS (HIGH-TEMP.)

The ASTM A193 specification covers alloy-steel and stainless steel stud bolts materials for high temperature or high-pressure service.

ASTM A193 stud bolts are available in national coarse (UNC) thread pitches, generally used in traditional applications, which means that there are 8 threads per inch (“thread per inch”) for rod diameters above 1 inch. B7 is the most common specification grade for stud bolts.

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (9)

The most common stud bolts materials covered by ASTM A193 are:

  • ASTM A193 B5
  • ASTM A193 B6
  • ASTM A193 B7:Alloy steel, AISI 4140/4142 quenched and tempered
  • ASTM A193 B7M
  • ASTM A193 B16
  • ASTM A193 B8:Class 1 Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated.
  • ASTM A193 B8A
  • ASTM A193 B8M:Class 1 Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated.
  • ASTM A193 B8MA
  • ASTM A193 B8T (SS 321)
  • ASTM A193 B8cl2:Class 2 Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated, strain hardened
  • ASTM A193 B8Tcl2
  • ASTM A193 B8Mcl2:Class 2 Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated, strain hardened

ASTM A193 Stud Bolts:Chemical Composition

Physical ElementASTM A193 grade B7 (AISI 4140)ASTM A193 grade B8 (AISI 304)ASTM A193 grade B8M (AISI 316)
Carbon0.38 – 0.48%0.08% max0.08% max
Manganese0.75 – 1.00%2.00% max2.00% max
Phosphorus, max0.035%0.045%0.045%
Sulfur, max0.040%0.030%0.030%
Silicon0.15 – 0.35%1.00% max1.00% max
Chromium0.80 – 1.10%18.0 – 20.0%16.0 – 18.0%
Nickelabsent8.0 – 11.0%10.0 – 14.0%
Molybdenum0.15 – 0.25%absent2.00 – 3.00%

ASTM A193 Stud Bolts:Mechanical Properties

ASTM A193SizeMin Tensile Strength, in ksiMin Yield Strength, in ksiMin Elongation, in %RA % minMax HBWMax HRC
ASTM A193 grade B7Up to 2-1/2125105165032135
2-5/8 – 4115951650
4-1/8 – 7100751850
ASTM A193 gradeB8 Class 1All7530305022335
ASTM A193 gradeB8M Class 1All7530305022396
ASTM A193 gradeB8 Class 2Up to 3/4125100123532135
7/8 – 1115801535
1-1/8 – 1-1/4105652035
1-3/8 – 1-1/2100502845
ASTM A193 gradeB8M Class 2Up to 3/411095154532135
7/8 – 1100802045
1-1/8 – 1-1/495652545
1-3/8 – 1-1/290503045

The material chosen for the threaded stud and the hex nuts should be compatible. Materials for bolting sets shall be selected based on the process’s working temperatures, as shown in the table below:

Stud bolts can be produced also with “dual certification,” i.e. they conform to multiple sets of ASTM standards (A193 B7 stud bolts can meet the requirements of A320 L7; B8 and B8m stud bolts also typically conform to both A193 and A320).

ASTM A453 STUD BOLTS (HIGH-TEMP.)

The ASTM A453 specification covers standards for Grade 660 (Class A, B, C, and D), Grade 651 (Class A and B), Grade 662 (Class A and B), and Grade 665 (Class A and B) of bolting materials, with ten classes of yield strength ranging from 50 to 120 KSI [345 to 827 MPa], for use in high-temperature service such as fasteners, pressure vessels and flanges.

Bolting materials in ASTM A453 are covered rolled, forged, or hot-extruded bars, and also bolts, nuts, screws, washers, studs, and stud bolts.
Materials shall adhere to specified contents of carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, columbium, aluminum, vanadium, boron, and copper.

According to ASTM A453 materials shall be subjected to tension, stress-rupture, and hardness tests. Materials shall conform to yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, reduction of area, Brinell hardness, and Rockwell hardness requirements.

Hardening and solution treatment requirements for each material class are also given. The most common grades under ASTM A453 are:

  • ASTM A453 660A
  • ASTM A453 660B
  • ASTM A453 660C
  • ASTM A453 660D

ASTM A453 Chemical Composition

ELEMENTASTM A453 Grade 660ASTM A453 Grade 651ASTM A453 Grade 662ASTM A453 Grade 665ASTM A453 Grade 668
%%%%%
Carbon0.08 max0.28-0.350.08 max0.08 max0.08 max
Manganese2.00 max0.75-1.50.40-1.001.25-2.002.00 max
Phosphorus, max0.040 max0.040 max0.040 max0.040 max0.040 max
Sulfur, max0.030 max0.030 max0.030 max0.030 max0.030 max
Silicon1.00 max0.30-0.800.40-1.000.1-0.801.00 max
Nickel24.0-27.08.0-11.024.0-28.024.0-28.017.5-21.5
Chromium13.5-16.018.0-21.012.0-15.012.0-15.013.5-16.0
Molybdenum1.00-1.501.00-1.752.0-3.501.25-2.251.50 max
Tungsten1.00-1.75
Titanium1.9-2.350.1-0.351.80-2.102.70-3.302.20-2.80
Columbium *0.25-0.6
Aluminum0.35 max0.35 max0.25 max0.50 max
Vanadium0.10-0.500.50 max
Boron0.001-0.0100.001-0.0100.01-0.070.001-0.010
Copper0.50 max0.50 max0.25 max

ASTM A453 Stud Bolts: Mechanical Properties

ASTM A453 GradeClassTensile, MpaYield, MpaElong. %, minRA %, min
ASTM A453 Grade 660A, B , & C895 min585 min1518
D895 min725 min1518
ASTM A453 Grade 651A690 min485 min1835
415 min
B655 min415 min1835
345 min
ASTM A453 Grade 662A895 min585 min1518
B860 min550 min1518
ASTM A453 Grade 665A1170 min830 min1215
B1070 min830 min1215
ASTM A453 Grade 665A & B895 min858 min1518

ASTM A453 Stud Bolts: Heat Treatments Requirements

ASTM A453 ClassSolutiona TreatmentHardening Treatment
660A1650 +/- 25 °F [900 +/-14 °C], hold 2 h, min and liquid quench1325 +/- 25 °F [720 +/- 14 °C] 16h, air cool
B1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 1 h, min and liquid quench1325 +/- 25 °F [720 +/- 14 °C] 16h, air cool
C1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 1 h, min and oil quench1425 +/- 25 °F [775 +/- 14 °C] hold 16h, air cool followed by 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 16h, air cool
D1650 +/- 25 °F [900 +/-14 °C], hold 2 h, min and liquid quench OR1325 +/- 25 °F [720 +/- 14 °C] hold 16h, air cool followed by 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 16h, air cool
if necessary to achieve properties, second age : 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C] hold 16h, air cool
1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 1 h, min and liquid quench
651Ahot-cold worked at 1200 °F[650] min with 15% min reduction in cross-sectional area, stress-relief anneal at 1200 °F [650 °C] min or 4h, min
Bhot-cold worked at 1200 °F[650] min with 15% min reduction in cross sectional area, stress-relief anneal at 1350 °F [730 °C] min or 4h, min
662A1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 1 h, min and liquid quench1350 to 1400 °F [730 to 760 °C], hold 20h, furnace cool to 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 20h, air cool
B1950 +/- 25 °F [1065 +/-14 °C], hold 2 h, min and liquid quench1350 to 1400 °F [730 to 760 °C], hold 20h, furnace cool to 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 20h, air cool
665A1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 3 h, min and liquid quench1350 to 1400 °F [730 to 760 °C], hold 20h, furnace cool to 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 20h, air cool
B2000 +/- 25 °F [1095 +/-14 °C], hold 3 h, min and liquid quench1350 to 1400 °F [730 to 760 °C], hold 20h, furnace cool to 1200 +/- 25 °F [650 +/- 14 °C], hold 20h, air cool
668A1650 +/- 25 °F [900 +/-14 °C], hold 2 h, min and liquid quench1325 +/- 25 °F [720 +/- 14 °C] 16h, air cool
B1800 +/- 25 °F [980 +/-14 °C], hold 1 h, min and liquid quench1325 +/- 25 °F [720 +/- 14 °C] 16h, air cool

A453 Stud Bolts: Time to Rupture and Elongation

GradeClassTest TemperatureStress, MinTime to RuptureElongation
Deg F [ Deg C ]KsiMpaMin, h*Min %
660A, B & C1200 [650]563851005
651A & B1200 [650]402751005
662A & B1200 [650]553801005
665A1200 [650]755151003
B1200 [650]704851005

ASTM A320 STUD BOLTS (LOW-TEMP.)

The ASTM A320 specification covers alloy steel and Stainless Steel stud bolts materials for low-temperature service.

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Each alloy under ASTM A320 shall conform to prescribed chemical requirements. The material, as represented by the tension specimens, shall conform to specific requirements in terms of tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, and hardness. The stud bolt material shall meet the prescribed impact energy absorption requirements and the target test temperature.

According to the ASTM A320 specification, manufacturers shall execute at least the following mechanical tests on the material: impact test, tension test, and hardness test.

The most common stud bolts materials under ASTM A320 are listed below (low-temperature service):

  • ASTM A320 L7:Alloy steel, AISI 4140/4142 Quenched and tempered
  • ASTM A320 L7M
  • ASTM A320 L43:Alloy steel, AISI 4340 Quenched and tempered
  • ASTM A320 B8Class 1: Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated
  • ASTM A320 B8A
  • ASTM A320 B8T
  • ASTM A320 B8TA
  • ASTM A320 B8C
  • ASTM A320 B8M:Class 1 Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated
  • ASTM A320 B8MA
  • ASTM A320 B8cl2:Stainless steel, AISI 304, carbide solution treated, strain hardened
  • ASTM A320 B8Mcl2:Stainless steel, AISI 316, carbide solution treated, strain hardened

ASTM A320Stud Bolts: Mechanical Properties

ASTM A320 GradeDiameterTensile, KSI, minYield, KSI, minCharpy Impact 20-ft-LBF @ tempElong, %, minRA, %, min
ASTM A320 Grade L7Up to212125105-150° F1650
ASTM A320 Grade L43Up to 4125105-150° F1650
ASTM A320 Grade B8 Class 1All7530N/A3050
ASTM A320 Grade B8M Class 1All7530N/A3050
ASTM A320 Grade B8 Class 2Up to34125100N/A1235
78– 111580N/A1535
118– 11410565N/A2035
138– 11210050N/A2845
ASTM A320 Grade B8M Class 2Up to3411095N/A1545
78– 110080N/A2045
118– 1149565N/A2545
138– 1129050N/A3045

ASTM A182 STUD BOLTS (Duplex and Super Duplex)

Duplex Steel Bolts

Chemical Composition:

CMnSiPSCrMoNiN
Duplex 2205
(S31803)
0.03
max
2.0
max
1.0
max
0.03
max
0.02
max
min: 21.0
max: 23.0
min: 2.5
max: 3.5
min: 4.5
max: 6.5
min: 0.08
max: 0.20
Duplex 2205
(S32205)
0.03
max
2.0
max
1.0
max
0.03
max
0.02
max
min: 22.0
max: 23.0
min: 3.0
max: 3.5
min: 4.5
max: 6.5
min: 0.14
max: 0.20

Mechanical Properties:

GradeTensile Strength
ksi (min)
Yield Strength
0.2% ksi (min)
Elongation %Hardness (HB) MAX
2205906525217

Physical Properties:

Density
lbm/in3
Electrical
Resistivity
mW•in
Thermal
Conductivity
(BTU/hr•ft•°F)
Heat
Capacity
BTU/lbm•°F
Electrical
Resistivity
(in x 10-6)
at 68°F0.27827.68.70.112
at 212°F26.19.20.11935.4
at 392°F25.49.80.12737.4
at 572°F24.910.40.13439.4

Super Duplex Bolts

Chemical Composition:

CCrNiMoNOthers
0.0225740.27S=0.001

Mechanical Properties:

Ultimate Tensile Strength,ksi16 min.
0.2% Offset Yield Strength 0.2%,ksi80 min.
0.1% Offset Yield Strength 0.2%,ksi91 min.
Elongation in 2 inches, %15 min.
Hardness Rockwell C32 max.
Impact Energy, ft.-lbs.74 min.

Physical Properties:

Densitylb/in30.28
Modulus of Elasticitypsi x 10629
The coefficient of Thermal Expansionx10-6/°F7.2
68-212°F/°F
Thermal ConductivityBtu/h ft °F8.7
Heat CapacityBtu/lb/°F0.12
Electrical ResistivityW-in x 10-631.5

COATED STUD BOLTS

Stud bolts can be coated to increase the resistance to corrosion. The most common types of coatings for stud bolts are listed below:

  • Electro zinc plating
  • Electro cadmium plating
  • Hot dip galvanizing
  • PTFE Coating
  • Phosphate coating
  • Electroless nickel plating
  • Zinc-nickel coating
  • Aluminum coating
  • Silver coating
  • Zinc/Nickel by electrodeposition
  • Dacromet
  • Geomet

In addition, also XYLAN and Xylar coatings are available:

  • XYLAN 1070
  • XYLAN 1024
  • Xylar 1

Xylan and Xylar coatings for stud bolts have multiple advantages:

  • Lower frictions vs. uncoated bolts (CoF is as low as 0.02)
  • Increased wear resistance for the bolt even under extreme pressures.
  • Strong corrosion and chemical resistance in most demanding environments
  • Increased resistance to adverse weather conditions (such as extreme sunlight, salt-water exposure to chemicals)
  • Wider operating range in terms of temperature (from -420° to +550°F, i.e. -250° to 285°C).
  • Color coding for easier traceability
  • Pliability: Xylan coatings bend easily and repeatedly and do not break
  • Machinability: multiple Xylan coatings can be applied to the stud bolts
  • Strong adhesion to bolting materials

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (10)

STUD BOLTS AND NUTS SELECTION (SERVICE vs. GRADE)

The material to use for stud bolts depends on multiple factors, the main ones are the material of the flanges and the pipeline design temperature:

DESIGN
TEMPERATURE
FLANGE MATERIALSTUD BOLTHEAVY HEX STEEL NUTS
-195° to 102°CASTM A 182 Gr. F304, F304L, F316, F316L, F321, F347A320 Gr. B8 Class 2A194 Gr. 8A
-101° to -47°CASTM A 350 Gr. LF3A 320 Gr. L7A 194 Gr. 7
-46° to -30°CASTM A 350 Gr. LF2A 320 Gr. L7A 194 Gr. 7
-29° to 427°CASTM A 105A 193 Gr. B7A 194 Gr. 2H
428° to 537°CASTM A 182 Gr. F11, F22A 193 Gr. B16A 194 Gr. 2H
538° to 648°CASTM A182 Gr. F11, F22A 193 Gr. B8 Class 1A 194 Gr. 8A
649° to 815°CASTM A182 Gr. F304 H, F316 HA 193 Gr. B8M Class 1A 194 Gr. 8A

Stud Bolt for Flanges (ASME B16.5) - Projectmaterials (11)
ASTM stud bolts materials selection.pdf

(Video) Types of Flanges used in the Oil & Gas Industry -Weld Neck, Blind, Slip-on, Socket Weld, Thd
(Video) Stud Bolts for Flanges - Definition, Difference Stud and Bolts, Sizes, ASTM Materials

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FAQs

Why are stud bolts used for flanges? ›

Stud bolts for flanges are the bolting material or fastener used to tighten the flange joint connection.

What bolts to use for flanges? ›

The most common materials for stud bolts (for flanges) are ASTM A193 (grade B7, B8, B8M, B8T), ASTM A453 (grade 660), ASTM A320 (grade L7, L7M), and ASTM A182 (duplex and super duplex bolting). For aggressive fluids and environments, stud bolts can be coated with Xylan, Xylar and other materials.

Why use stud bolts? ›

Studs provide the ability to obtain much more accurate torque values because the studs don't twist during tightening as do bolts. Because the studs remain stationary during nut tightening, the studs stretch in one axis alone, providing much more even and accurate clamping forces.

What is the proper length of a stud bolt? ›

The rule of thumb for a desirable stud length is a 5:1 ratio length of the stud to the diameter of the stud, meaning that the length of the stud bolt is five times larger than the diameter of the stud bolts.

What is the difference between a bolt and a stud? ›

Bolts are best described as long shafts and are generally only partially threaded. While a stud requires the use of a nut screw to increase or loosen tension between the parts it holds together, the bolt has a distinct flat head on one side.

What is the yield strength of B16 studs? ›

Grade B16 is a heat-treated chromium-molybdenum-vanadium (Cr-Mo-V) alloy steel with maximum tensile strength of 860 MPa, yield 725, and 35HRC hardness.

What size bolts for a 16 flange? ›

Flange Bolting Chart
150 LB. Flanges
Nominal Pipe Size# Bolts or StudsDia of Bolts or Studs
16161.50
18161.63
20201.63
18 more rows

What is a stud flange? ›

Stud bolts implied for bolting pipeline flanges, are called flange stud bolts. These flange studs have continuous threaded body and chamfered ends. Engagement length is considered from first threaded to last thread, excluding the chamfered ends.

What is a flange bolt? ›

Used in automotive applications, plumbing, and more, flange bolts feature a washer like flange beneath the bolt head that speeds production time and distributes the clamping load, offering protection to the mating surface.

Where are stud bolt used? ›

Studs are threaded at both ends and the middle screw, either thick or thin.It is generally used in mining machinery, Bridges, automobiles, motorcycles, boiler steel structure, pylon, long-span steel structure and large buildings.

What are the 3 types of studs? ›

Considering the shape of a stud, these are categorized into three basic types: Fully Threaded Stud. Tap-End Stud. Double-End Stud.

What is purpose of stud? ›

Purpose. Studs form walls and may carry vertical structural loads or be non load-bearing, such as in partition walls, which only separate spaces. They hold in place the windows, doors, interior finish, exterior sheathing or siding, insulation and utilities and help give shape to a building.

How do you determine bolt length? ›

What is the correct bolt length? The correct bolt length that should be used in an assembly is roughly 2 times the diameter of the bolt, plus the thickness of the material. As can be seen in the formula above, most often there are additional plates or packers in the bolt assembly.

How is stud length measured? ›

As shown in the illustration, the stud series is the length (in inches) from the top of the backing plate to the tip of the properly torqued stud.

How many types of studs are there? ›

There are four basic stud types: Class 1 has an interference fit at one end and a free-running thread at the other. This is also called a gland or tap-end stud.

How do you screw into stud bolts? ›

Stud Removal & Installation - YouTube

What does the term stud mean? ›

Slang. a man who is notably virile and sexually active. a handsome man with an attractive physique; a hunk.

What is the difference between B7 and B16 bolts? ›

The “big brother” of B7 studs, B16 studs are found in similar situations, but are specified when a higher temperature is required. Vanadium is the main composition difference that separates B16 from B7, allowing the higher temperature limits.

What nuts go with B16 studs? ›

It is imperative that you use Grade 7 (or 4) nuts with B16 studs, because they have similar properties. 2H Nuts, on the other hand, will relax more.

What is the yield strength of bolt of? ›

Bolt Grade Markings and Strength Chart
Grade and MaterialMechanical Properties
Min. Yield Strength (psi)
Class 8.8 Medium carbon steel, quenched and tempered660
Class 10.9 Alloy steel, quenched and tempered940
Class 12.9 Alloy steel, quenched and tempered1100
18 more rows

What size are flange bolts? ›

Flange bolts are partially and fully threaded depending on size and length. The point for hex types is chamfered or rounded; for 12 point, it's flat and chamfered. Typical sizes for hex range from 3/8" to 3/4"; #10 to 1/2" for serrated hex; and 1/4" to 1" in diameter for 12 point.

What is a B16 5 flange? ›

ASME B16. 5 standard covers Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings from NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch in pressure class 150 to class 2500. It covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings.

How many bolts are in a flange? ›

Flange to flange connections require a bolt kit and gasket. Bolt kits include 4 - 12 bolts, one nut per bolt, and two washers per bolt.

How do you measure the diameter of a Stud Bolt? ›

To measure the diameter of screws and bolts, you measure the distance from the outer thread on one side to the outer thread on the other side. This is called the major diameter and will usually be the proper size of the bolt.

What is a Stud Bolt anchor? ›

A stud concrete anchor bolt is a concrete anchor that, once installed into the concrete, has a threaded portion sticking up out from the concrete. Stud concrete anchor bolts are manufactured from standard carbon steel that is zinc plated or hot-dipped galvanize.

What is short bolting? ›

Short bolting is a term frequently used to describe the situation when a bolt is installed and the thread does not fully protrude through the nut. In order that the full strength of the nut is to be realised, it is vital the bolt thread protrudes through the nut.

How do flange bolts work? ›

A flange bolt differs from the common bolt in that it has a wider surface area under the head to provide for an even distribution of clamping pressure. This wider surface acts like a washer, eliminating the need to combine one with this kind of bolt.

Are flange bolts better? ›

The Strength of Flange Bolts - YouTube

Is standard for stud bolts? ›

ASME B16. 5 is primarily the dimensional standard for ASTM Stud bolts. This defines the Dimensional requirement primarily i.e. length and the diameter of stud Bolt to be used for the tightening of flanges.

What is a stud in mechanical engineering? ›

A threaded rod, also known as a stud, is a relatively long rod that is threaded on both ends; the thread may extend along the complete length of the rod. They are designed to be used in tension. Threaded rod in bar stock form is often called all-thread.

What is the HS code for stud bolt? ›

Search HS Code
HSN CodeProduct Description
7318Screws, bolts, nuts, coach- screws, screw hooks, rivets, cotters, cotter-pins, washers (including spring washers) and similar articles, of iron or steel
73181500Other screws and bolts whether or not with their nuts or washers
73181900Other
2 more rows

How does a stud bolt work? ›

Stud Bolts are externally threaded fasteners without a head, used with 2 nuts on either side, substituting a usual "bolt & nut" assembly. Stud bolts are prominently used in flange connections. Depending upon their design and threading patterns, there are different types of stud bolts as below.

What is a common stud? ›

Common studs are vertical members which transfer loads vertically to bottom plates. They are usually evenly spaced to suit loads, lining and cladding fixing. Spacings are generally 450 or 600 mm, depending on the roof cladding.

What is stud height? ›

Standard stud height is 2.4 meters, and they're placed vertically every 600 centres. Nogs (or dwangs) are placed every 800mm centres.

Do I always need a stud? ›

There's never a stud when you need one. If you're looking for a clever solution to hang a picture or other fixture to drywall, try one of these. Whether fastening a framed picture, mirror, shelf, or curtain rod to a wall, it's always best to screw or nail directly into a wall stud.

How much space is between studs? ›

When a home is framed, the wall studs are usually spaced 16 or 24 inches apart. If you start in a corner and measure out 16 inches and you don't find a stud, you should find one at 24 inches.

How do you find a stud? ›

Find a Wall Stud Without Using a Stud Finder - YouTube

What is a stud flange? ›

Stud bolts implied for bolting pipeline flanges, are called flange stud bolts. These flange studs have continuous threaded body and chamfered ends. Engagement length is considered from first threaded to last thread, excluding the chamfered ends.

What is a flange bolt? ›

Used in automotive applications, plumbing, and more, flange bolts feature a washer like flange beneath the bolt head that speeds production time and distributes the clamping load, offering protection to the mating surface.

Are head studs better than head bolts? ›

In other words, head studs are better suited for high-performance vehicles with greater power requirements, while head bolts are more practical for personal, everyday automobiles. Therefore, it would be inaccurate to conclude that one type of fastener is categorically superior to the other.

What is a stub flange? ›

PE stub flanges are butt welded to the ends of pipes and fittings and used in conjunction with metal backing plates, and rubber sealing gaskets provide a demountable joint. Sealing gaskets are made from various materials to suit the liquid being carried.

What are the different types of studs? ›

There are four basic stud types:
  • Class 1 has an interference fit at one end and a free-running thread at the other. ...
  • Class 2 has free-running threads at both ends. ...
  • Class 3 is a three-bolt stud, which is used in high-temperature/pressure applications.
  • Class 4 is used for general-purpose applications.
Nov 15, 2002

How do you measure the diameter of a Stud Bolt? ›

To measure the diameter of screws and bolts, you measure the distance from the outer thread on one side to the outer thread on the other side. This is called the major diameter and will usually be the proper size of the bolt.

What is a Stud Bolt anchor? ›

A stud concrete anchor bolt is a concrete anchor that, once installed into the concrete, has a threaded portion sticking up out from the concrete. Stud concrete anchor bolts are manufactured from standard carbon steel that is zinc plated or hot-dipped galvanize.

How many bolts are in a flange? ›

Flange Bolting Chart
900 LB. Flanges
Nominal Pipe Size# Bolts or StudsDia of Bolts or Studs
1/240.75
3/440.75
140.88
13 more rows

How do flange bolts work? ›

A flange bolt differs from the common bolt in that it has a wider surface area under the head to provide for an even distribution of clamping pressure. This wider surface acts like a washer, eliminating the need to combine one with this kind of bolt.

Are flange bolts better? ›

The Strength of Flange Bolts - YouTube

How do you tighten a stud? ›

Stud Removal & Installation - YouTube

Do you need head studs? ›

Why Would You Need Head Studs for Performance? You will absolutely need head studs if you're planning on modifying your truck for performance in any way. Diesel engines, especially Powerstroke, Duramax, and Cummins engines, are under a lot of pressure just by their design.

Can you replace head bolts with studs one at a time? ›

Registered. Yes, you can replace one stud at a time without changing the gaskets.

How many types of flanges are there? ›

5 are.. Welding Neck, Slip On, Socket Weld, Lap Joint, Threaded and Blind flange. Below you will find a short description and definition of each type, completed with an detailed image.

What is a blind flange? ›

The blind flange is basically a flange that does not have a hub or a bored center. Blind flanges have the face thickness of a flange, a matching face type, and similar bolting pattern. Blind flanges can also be used to seal a nozzle opening on a pressure vessel.

What is the difference between Type A and Type C stub ends? ›

Type A and B stub end are similar to forged fittings, such as elbows and tees, and type C stub end are made in customized sizes. The type A stub end is used for standard lap joint flange. The lap thickness on the stub end is greater than or equal to the nominal thickness of pipe wall.

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